Redis

Redis Event Library

Redis implements its own event library. The event library is implemented in ae.c.

The best way to understand how the Redis event library works is to understand how Redis uses it.

Event Loop Initialization

initServer function defined in redis.c initializes the numerous fields of the redisServer structure variable. One such field is the Redis event loop el:

aeEventLoop *el

initServer initializes server.el field by calling aeCreateEventLoop defined in ae.c. The definition of aeEventLoop is below:

typedef struct aeEventLoop
{
    int maxfd;
    long long timeEventNextId;
    aeFileEvent events[AE_SETSIZE]; /* Registered events */
    aeFiredEvent fired[AE_SETSIZE]; /* Fired events */
    aeTimeEvent *timeEventHead;
    int stop;
    void *apidata; /* This is used for polling API specific data */
    aeBeforeSleepProc *beforesleep;
} aeEventLoop;

aeCreateEventLoop

aeCreateEventLoop first mallocs aeEventLoop structure then calls ae_epoll.c:aeApiCreate.

aeApiCreate mallocs aeApiState that has two fields - epfd that holds the epoll file descriptor returned by a call from epoll_create and events that is of type struct epoll_event define by the Linux epoll library. The use of the events field will be described later.

Next is ae.c:aeCreateTimeEvent. But before that initServer call anet.c:anetTcpServer that creates and returns a listening descriptor. The descriptor listens on port 6379 by default. The returned listening descriptor is stored in server.fd field.

aeCreateTimeEvent

aeCreateTimeEvent accepts the following as parameters:

initServer calls aeCreateTimeEvent to add a timed event to timeEventHead field of server.el. timeEventHead is a pointer to a list of such timed events. The call to aeCreateTimeEvent from redis.c:initServer function is given below:

aeCreateTimeEvent(server.el /*eventLoop*/, 1 /*milliseconds*/, serverCron /*proc*/, NULL /*clientData*/, NULL /*finalizerProc*/);

redis.c:serverCron performs many operations that helps keep Redis running properly.

aeCreateFileEvent

The essence of aeCreateFileEvent function is to execute epoll_ctl system call which adds a watch for EPOLLIN event on the listening descriptor create by anetTcpServer and associate it with the epoll descriptor created by a call to aeCreateEventLoop.

Following is an explanation of what precisely aeCreateFileEvent does when called from redis.c:initServer.

initServer passes the following arguments to aeCreateFileEvent:

This completes the initialization of Redis event loop.

Event Loop Processing

ae.c:aeMain called from redis.c:main does the job of processing the event loop that is initialized in the previous phase.

ae.c:aeMain calls ae.c:aeProcessEvents in a while loop that processes pending time and file events.

aeProcessEvents

ae.c:aeProcessEvents looks for the time event that will be pending in the smallest amount of time by calling ae.c:aeSearchNearestTimer on the event loop. In our case there is only one timer event in the event loop that was created by ae.c:aeCreateTimeEvent.

Remember, that timer event created by aeCreateTimeEvent has by now probably elapsed because it had a expiry time of one millisecond. Since, the timer has already expired the seconds and microseconds fields of the tvp timeval structure variable is initialized to zero.

The tvp structure variable along with the event loop variable is passed to ae_epoll.c:aeApiPoll.

aeApiPoll functions does a epoll_wait on the epoll descriptor and populates the eventLoop->fired table with the details:

aeApiPoll returns the number of such file events ready for operation. Now to put things in context, if any client has requested for a connection then aeApiPoll would have noticed it and populated the eventLoop->fired table with an entry of the descriptor being the listening descriptor and mask being AE_READABLE.

Now, aeProcessEvents calls the redis.c:acceptHandler registered as the callback. acceptHandler executes accept on the listening descriptor returning a connected descriptor with the client. redis.c:createClient adds a file event on the connected descriptor through a call to ae.c:aeCreateFileEvent like below:

if (aeCreateFileEvent(server.el, c->fd, AE_READABLE,
    readQueryFromClient, c) == AE_ERR) {
    freeClient(c);
    return NULL;
}

c is the redisClient structure variable and c->fd is the connected descriptor.

Next the ae.c:aeProcessEvent calls ae.c:processTimeEvents

processTimeEvents

ae.processTimeEvents iterates over list of time events starting at eventLoop->timeEventHead.

For every timed event that has elapsed processTimeEvents calls the registered callback. In this case it calls the only timed event callback registered, that is, redis.c:serverCron. The callback returns the time in milliseconds after which the callback must be called again. This change is recorded via a call to ae.c:aeAddMilliSeconds and will be handled on the next iteration of ae.c:aeMain while loop.

That's all.