Available since: 2.2.0
Time complexity: O(1)
Sets or clears the bit at offset in the string value stored at key.
The bit is either set or cleared depending on value, which can be either 0 or 1.
When key does not exist, a new string value is created. The string is grown to make sure it can hold a bit at offset. The offset argument is required to be greater than or equal to 0, and smaller than 2^32 (this limits bitmaps to 512MB). When the string at key is grown, added bits are set to 0.
Warning: When setting the last possible bit (offset equal to 2^32 -1) and
the string value stored at key does not yet hold a string value, or holds a
small string value, Redis needs to allocate all intermediate memory which can
block the server for some time.
On a 2010 MacBook Pro, setting bit number 2^32 -1 (512MB allocation) takes
~300ms, setting bit number 2^30 -1 (128MB allocation) takes ~80ms, setting bit
number 2^28 -1 (32MB allocation) takes ~30ms and setting bit number 2^26 -1 (8MB
allocation) takes ~8ms.
Note that once this first allocation is done, subsequent calls to
the same key will not have the allocation overhead.
Integer reply: the original bit value stored at offset.
There are cases when you need to set all the bits of single bitmap at once, for
example when initializing it to a default non-zero value. It is possible to do
this with multiple calls to the
SETBIT command, one for each bit that needs to
be set. However, so as an optimization you can use a single
SET command to set
the entire bitmap.
Bitmaps are not an actual data type, but a set of bit-oriented operations
defined on the String type (for more information refer to the
Bitmaps section of the Data Types Introduction page). This means that
bitmaps can be used with string commands, and most importantly with
Because Redis' strings are binary-safe, a bitmap is trivially encoded as a bytes stream. The first byte of the string corresponds to offsets 0..7 of the bitmap, the second byte to the 8..15 range, and so forth.
For example, after setting a few bits, getting the string value of the bitmap would look like this:
> SETBIT bitmapsarestrings 2 1 > SETBIT bitmapsarestrings 3 1 > SETBIT bitmapsarestrings 5 1 > SETBIT bitmapsarestrings 10 1 > SETBIT bitmapsarestrings 11 1 > SETBIT bitmapsarestrings 14 1 > GET bitmapsarestrings "42"
By getting the string representation of a bitmap, the client can then parse the
response's bytes by extracting the bit values using native bit operations in its
native programming language. Symmetrically, it is also possible to set an entire
bitmap by performing the bits-to-bytes encoding in the client and calling
with the resultant string.
SETBIT excels at setting single bits, and can be called several times when
multiple bits need to be set. To optimize this operation you can replace
SETBIT calls with a single call to the variadic
and the use of fields of type
For example, the example above could be replaced by:
> BITFIELD bitsinabitmap SET u1 2 1 SET u1 3 1 SET u1 5 1 SET u1 10 1 SET u1 11 1 SET u1 14 1
It is also possible to use the
SETRANGE string commands to
efficiently access a range of bit offsets in a bitmap. Below is a sample
implementation in idiomatic Redis Lua scripting that can be run with the
--[[ Sets a bitmap range Bitmaps are stored as Strings in Redis. A range spans one or more bytes, so we can call [`SETRANGE`](/commands/setrange) when entire bytes need to be set instead of flipping individual bits. Also, to avoid multiple internal memory allocations in Redis, we traverse in reverse. Expected input: KEYS - bitfield key ARGV - start offset (0-based, inclusive) ARGV - end offset (same, should be bigger than start, no error checking) ARGV - value (should be 0 or 1, no error checking) ]]-- -- A helper function to stringify a binary string to semi-binary format local function tobits(str) local r = '' for i = 1, string.len(str) do local c = string.byte(str, i) local b = ' ' for j = 0, 7 do b = tostring(bit.band(c, 1)) .. b c = bit.rshift(c, 1) end r = r .. b end return r end -- Main local k = KEYS local s, e, v = tonumber(ARGV), tonumber(ARGV), tonumber(ARGV) -- First treat the dangling bits in the last byte local ms, me = s % 8, (e + 1) % 8 if me > 0 then local t = math.max(e - me + 1, s) for i = e, t, -1 do redis.call('SETBIT', k, i, v) end e = t end -- Then the danglings in the first byte if ms > 0 then local t = math.min(s - ms + 7, e) for i = s, t, 1 do redis.call('SETBIT', k, i, v) end s = t + 1 end -- Set a range accordingly, if at all local rs, re = s / 8, (e + 1) / 8 local rl = re - rs if rl > 0 then local b = '\255' if 0 == v then b = '\0' end redis.call('SETRANGE', k, rs, string.rep(b, rl)) end
Note: the implementation for getting a range of bit offsets from a bitmap is left as an exercise to the reader.